Vaccine Recommendations for Travelers age 2 years or older
The following vaccines should be reviewed with a health care provider as far in advance of travel as possible to ensure the proper scheduling of recommended vaccines.
Primary Vaccine Series
For travelers older than 2 years of age the following immunizations normally given during childhood should be up-to-date:
Children older than 2 years should be "on schedule" with each vaccine's primary-series schedule, while adults should have completed the primary series. The number of doses needed depends on the child's age. If you are unsure about your vaccine history, consult with your physician.
In addition, adult travelers may want to consider:
Booster or additional doses
TETANUS AND DIPHTHERIA
A booster dose of adult tetanus-diphtheria (Td) is recommended every 10 years.
For persons who have received a complete series of polio vaccine (either IPV or OPV), an additional single dose of vaccine should be received by persons 18 years of age and older traveling to the developing countries of Africa (Southern, Central, East, West, and North), Asia (East and Southeast), the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, and the majority of the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. This additional dose of polio vaccine is necessary for travelers to risk areas only once in adulthood. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is recommended for this dose.
Persons born in or after 1957 should consider a second dose of measles vaccine before traveling abroad.
The following immunizations may be recommended:
All vaccines (except cholera and yellow fever vaccines) may be safely administered simultaneously without any decrease in effectiveness. Immune globulin (IG) may be simultaneously administered at different body locations with an inactivated vaccine such as DTaP, IPV, Hib, and hepatitis A and B vaccines. However, IG diminishes the effectiveness of live-virus MMR and varicella vaccines if IG is given simultaneously. IG does not interfere with either OPV or yellow fever vaccine when given simultaneously.
Pregnancy and immunizations
Women who are pregnant or who are likely to become pregnant within three months should not receive MMR or B vaccines. Yellow fever or polio (OPV) vaccines should be given to pregnant women only if there is a substantial risk of exposure. If given during pregnancy, waiting until the second or third trimester minimizes theoretical concerns over possible birth defects.
Women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy have been found to be at increased risk of complications from influenza. Because currently available influenza vaccine is an inactivated vaccine, many experts consider influenza vaccination safe during any stage of pregnancy. A study of influenza vaccination of more than 2,000 pregnant women demonstrated no adverse fetal affects associated with influenza vaccine. However, more data are needed. Some experts prefer to administer influenza vaccine during the second trimester to avoid a coincidental association with spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), which is common in the first trimester, and because exposures to vaccines have traditionally been avoided during this time.
No convincing evidence for risk to the unborn baby from inactivated viral or bacterial vaccines or toxoids administered to pregnant women has been documented. These vaccines include: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, injectable typhoid, meningococcal, pneumococcal, tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (adult formulation) and IPV. Immune globulin can be given to pregnant women. Specific information is not available on the safety of cholera vaccine during pregnancy; therefore, it is prudent on theoretical grounds to avoid vaccinating pregnant women.
All vaccines may be administered safely to children of pregnant women and to breast-feeding mothers.